How is a circuit designed?

Designing semiconductor systems integrator  like  VLSI circuits is difficult. However, the probability that we can design VLSI circuits for industrial application is still high. Suppose we want to optimize our design process. In that case, the first step that needs to be take is a systematic understanding of all types of components. Use for designing VLSI circuits in general and capacitors in particular. The  features listed below are the key components that need to be consider when designing a circuit with capacitors. They are not intended to be an exhaustive list but are presented to illustrate the type of features that need to be considered in case of VLSI digital design 

VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit design is a way of creating complex systems. In which the smallest component has been reduced to microscopic size. A transistor is the most fundamental component in this design. It consists of three regions: a source region, a channel region and a drain region. Many transistors are connect together to form complicated circuits. The source acts as an input for electrons, while the drain provides an output.

  1. The construction of the transistor depends on the use of different materials, in order to control the charging and discharging rates.
  2. An important factor to consider is the physical architecture and fabrication of the transistor, which can affect its electrical characteristics, current gain and operating speeds.
  3. The selection of semiconductor materials affects its electrical characteristics, such as electrical conductivity and field-effect mobility. However, it also affects its ability to be fabricate into different forms as require for transistor structures.
  4. There are three types of transistor: the bipolar junction transistor, the field-effect transistor, and the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. The bipolar junction transistor uses both n-type and p-type materials to create the source, channel and drain regions. While the field-effect transistor only uses n-type material. The metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors are make entirely of n-type material but is consider a variation of bipolar junction transistors.
  5. Some new transistors have been develop to overcome some of its shortcomings, such as high voltage operation, low operating frequency and high production costs.

Design Considerations

Other design considerations of vlsi layout  include stability, increases in frequency, and factors like that, but this list is a subset and designed for a specific application. A proper understanding of these ten criteria will help an engineer be aware of the potential issues in the design process.

 Capacitors Design structures

Capacitors are among the most common design structures use in electronics devices, including integrated circuits and I/O circuits. They are one of the few components that can be found in almost every electronic device and embedded technologies. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the design process used to design them into an understanding of their properties. Without knowing these, it will be impossible for an engineer to design a circuit around them properly.

Capacitor Passive component

A capacitor is a passive component that is use to store electric charges. A capacitor can work as an electrical filter that controls changes in the voltage across its terminals. This capability is critical to the operation of almost any electronic circuit. A capacitor is usually make up of several stacked layers of material; the outermost layer is call an insulator. A dielectric is form by a material with a high dielectric constant. Which has the practical effect that it can store a great deal of electric charge with very little loss of voltage in transmission.

Typical capacitor design

Capacitors are use as passive filters in high-frequency applications to store. And release charge and block direct current (DC) while passing alternating current (AC). In order for a capacitor to perform these functions, it must have the following characteristics: A capacitor is not an ideal filter; there are several problems associate with the use of capacitors in real-world applications. The first is the fact that capacitance is highly temperature-dependent. A capacitor with a constant capacitance of 1 nF at a temperature of 20 °C may have a capacitance of 0.8 nF at a temperature of 100 °C.

Parasitic resistances and inductances

The further problem is that there are parasitic resistances and inductances connected to the input and output terminals of the capacitor. This parasitic resistance causes the capacitor to react in a non-linear manner. Unlike ideal components such as an ideal resistor or ideal inductor. Adjusting the value of the capacitor does not compensate for this non-linearity, as shown by the graph on the right with vlsi digital design techniques

Another problem associated with capacitors is that they are generally small in size and therefore expensive to produce. Also, some types of capacitors may be relatively sensitive to voltage changes if they are part of a larger circuit. Despite the problems associated with their use, various capacitors are common to almost all electronic circuits. The following table lists some of the commonly used types of capacitors.

 Types of Capacitors

These three capacitors are usually find within integrate circuits and other power supply devices. They are use as decoupling capacitors, as part of a power supply filter circuit, or as bypass capacitors. They are usually of the radial lead type, as it is easy to mount them on printed circuit boards for surface mounting. The purpose of any decoupling or bypass capacitor is to reduce the impact of noise generated by power supply switching, high-speed logic gates, and other sources. A decent bypass capacitor can reduce this problem significantly without injecting much additional noise into the power supply system.


Once the design has been verified, a layout of the chip can be made and an initial cost estimate given. The process is then repeated until the designer decides that there is no more room for improvement within the given cost parameters. A variable power supply consists of an electronic circuit capable of providing regulated power over a wide range of voltages, from DC up to several hundred volts.

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